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  • January 13, 2023
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The result from Targets’ Sex and you will Country towards Spoken and you will Sang F0, F0 Range, and VTL

The result from Targets’ Sex and you will Country towards Spoken and you will Sang F0, F0 Range, and VTL

Additionally, we used General Linear Models (GLM) to test for possible effects of sex, age, and country on voice attractiveness ratings. Similarly, to test whether mean F0, range F0, and VTL of speech and singing differ between men and women or between Brazilian and Czech participants, we performed a multivariate GLM with mean F0 and F0 range as dependent variables and sex and country of targets as factors. Due to a limited samples size, we evaluated only simple models. The effect size displayed is a partial Eta-squared (?p 2 ).


We found large effects of targets’ sex on all vocal parameters; mean speech F0 (F = , df = 1, 153, p 2 = 0.878), mean speech F0 range (F = , df = 1, 153, p 2 = 0.086), VTL as measured from speech (F = , df = 1,153, p 2 = 0.934), mean singing F0 (F = , df = 1, 153, p 2 = 0.831), mean singing F0 range (F = 7.00, df = 1, 153, p = 0.009, ?p 2 = 0.045), and VTL as measured from singing (F = , df = 1, 153, p 2 = 0.911). Estimated marginal means revealed that women had a higher F0 and F0 range and shorter VTL than men (for mean values, see Table 1). There was also a significant effect of the target country on speech F0 range (F = 4.31, df = 1, 153, p = 0.040, ?p 2 = 0.028), VTL as measured from speech (F = https://datingmentor.org/georgian-chat-rooms/, df = 1,153, p = 0.001, ?p 2 = 0.065), and VTL as measured from singing (F = 6.59, df = 1, 153, p = 0.011, ?p 2 = 0.042). Estimated marginal means show that Czech participants had a lower speech F0 range and longer VTL than the Brazilian participants (see Table 1 for details).

Desk 1. Mean basic volume (F0) and also the a number of fundamental regularity (F0 assortment) inside the semitones, and you will VTL (into the centimeters) inside the group.

It is worth noting that the mediocre VTL actions for men and you may ladies (Table 1) compare with inhabitants-top averages (Pisanski mais aussi al., 2014).

Contrasting Anywhere between Talking and you will Vocal Voice

F0 counted of address is actually firmly absolutely synchronised that have F0 mentioned off singing in males (r = 0.800, N = 73, p dos = , df = 44, p 2 = , df = 49, p = 0.twenty six when you look at the boys, ? dos = , df = forty two, p = 0.05 in women). Results are for this reason claimed independently for men and you may ladies however, jointly to own Czech and you may Brazilian people.

Using highway analysis (get a hold of Second Tables S6, S7 to possess full activities), i discovered that inside boys, lower-pitched address was rated as more glamorous (Shape step one). An identical kept out of singing, but that it relationships don’t arrived at analytical relevance. In guys, a larger message diversity, not vocal variety, are ranked much more glamorous. Glamorous speech are certainly on the complete SOI, however, that it relationships did not maintain its balance in jackknife resampling. The total SOI are personally associated with a diminished F0 inside message and higher F0 into the singing. Pounds had an effective and you may confident direct affect identified address and you may singing attractiveness. Decades got a terrible affect speech attractiveness nevertheless perception didn’t remain secure lower than jackknifing (pick Secondary Desk S8).

Contour 1. Path data results for F0. Arrows represent estimated parameters. Dating somewhat not the same as 0 (expressed from the sturdy permutation produced p philosophy) try coloured (positive dating within the environmentally friendly, negative inside purple) and you will labeled with standardized design estimates. Dating that did not meet with the jackknife relevance balance standards is actually illustrated that have a beneficial dashed range. F0 = average practical frequency; WSR = waist-to-shoulder ratio; and you will WHR = waist-to-cool ratio.